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Under COPPA, how do I know if my channel is “directed to children”? Since the FTC and New York Attorney General announced their September 2019 settlement with YouTube for violations of the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act Rule, we’ve heard that question from channel owners – sometimes called content creators. If you’re a channel owner who shares content on user-generated platforms like YouTube, read on for FTC staff guidance about the applicability of the COPPA Rule and how those covered by the Rule can comply with its requirements.

The FTC action against YouTube and Google

The lawsuit against YouTube and Google alleged that the companies illegally collected personal information from children, in violation of COPPA. According to the complaint, the companies collected that information from viewers of child-directed YouTube channels in the form of persistent identifiers that track users across the Internet, but didn’t notify parents and get their consent. To settle the case, YouTube and Google agreed to create a mechanism so that channel owners can designate when the videos they upload to YouTube are – to use the words of COPPA – “directed to children.” The purpose of this requirement is to make sure that both YouTube and channel owners are complying with the law.

A COPPA recap

That provision of the settlement has raised questions among content creators about how to determine if what they upload to YouTube or other platforms is “directed to children.” The answer requires a brief summary of some key COPPA provisions. Passed by Congress in 1998, the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act is a federal law that protects the privacy of children under 13. COPPA’s foundational principle is one that most people can agree on: Parents – not kids, companies, platforms, or content creators – should be in control when it comes to information collected from children online.

The FTC enforces the law through the COPPA Rule. In general, COPPA requires operators of commercial websites and online services that are directed to children (more about that in a minute) to provide notice and obtain verifiable parental consent before they collect personal information from kids under 13.

The COPPA Rule defines “personal information” to include obvious things like a child’s first and last name or home address, but that’s not all. Under COPPA, personal information also covers what are called persistent identifiers – behind-the-scenes code that recognizes a user over time and across different sites or online services. That could be an IP address or a cookie when it’s used to serve targeted ads. Keep in mind that an operator also might be collecting personal information through an open comment field on its site or service that allows a user under 13 to make personal information publicly available. For example, think of a comment like this on a child-directed site: My name is Mary Jones from Springfield. I love this video!

How COPPA applies to channel owners

So how does COPPA apply to channel owners who upload their content to YouTube or another third-party platform? COPPA applies in the same way it would if the channel owner had its own website or app. If a channel owner uploads content to a platform like YouTube, the channel might meet the definition of a “website or online service” covered by COPPA, depending on the nature of the content and the information collected. If the content is directed to children and if the channel owner, or someone on its behalf (for example, an ad network), collects personal information from viewers of that content (for example, through a persistent identifier that tracks a user to serve interest-based ads), the channel is covered by COPPA. Once COPPA applies, the operator must provide notice, obtain verifiable parental consent, and meet COPPA’s other requirements. For information on how to comply with COPPA, please visit the FTC’s COPPA page for our Six-Step Compliance Plan for Your Business.

How channel owners can determine if their content is directed to children

Under COPPA, there is no one-size-fits-all answer about what makes a site directed to children, but we can offer some guidance. To be clear, your content isn’t considered “directed to children” just because some children may see it. However, if your intended audience is kids under 13, you’re covered by COPPA and have to honor the Rule’s requirements.

The Rule sets out additional factors the FTC will consider in determining whether your content is child-directed:

  • the subject matter,
  • visual content,
  • the use of animated characters or child-oriented activities and incentives,
  • the kind of music or other audio content,
  • the age of models,
  • the presence of child celebrities or celebrities who appeal to children,
  • language or other characteristics of the site,
  • whether advertising that promotes or appears on the site is directed to children, and
  • competent and reliable empirical evidence about the age of the audience.

The determination of whether content is child-directed will be clearer in some contexts than in others, but we can share some general rules of thumb. First, unless you’re affirmatively targeting kids, there are many subject matter categories where you don’t have to worry about COPPA. For example, if your videos are about traditionally adult activities like employment, finances, politics, home ownership, home improvement, or travel, you’re probably not covered unless your content is geared toward kids. The same would be true for videos aimed at high school or college students. On the other hand, if your content includes traditional children’s pastimes or activities, it may be child-directed. For example, the FTC recently determined that an online dress-up game was child-directed.

Second, just because your video has bright colors or animated characters doesn’t mean you’re automatically covered by COPPA. While many animated shows are directed to kids, the FTC recognizes there can be animated programming that appeals to everyone.

Third, the complaint in the YouTube case offers some examples of channels the FTC considered to be directed to children. For example, many content creators explicitly stated in the “About” section of their YouTube channel that their intended audience was children under 13. Other channels made similar statements in communications with YouTube. In addition, many of the channels featured popular animated children’s programs or showed kids playing with toys or participating in other child-oriented activities. Some of the channel owners also enabled settings that made their content appear when users searched for the names of popular toys or animated characters. Want to see the FTC’s analysis in context? Read pages 10-14 of the YouTube complaint.

Finally, if you’ve applied the factors listed in the COPPA Rule and still wonder if your content is “directed to children,” it might help to consider how others view your content and content similar to yours. Has your channel been reviewed on sites that evaluate content for kids? Is your channel – or channels like yours – mentioned in blogs for parents of young children or in media articles about child-directed content? Have you surveyed your users or is there other empirical evidence about the age of your audience?

What are the possible penalties for violating COPPA?

The Rule allows for civil penalties of up to $42,530 per violation, but the FTC considers a number of factors in determining the appropriate amount, including a company’s financial condition and the impact a penalty could have on its ability to stay in business. While Google and YouTube paid $170 million, in another COPPA case settled this year, the operator paid a total civil penalty of $35,000.

Isn’t the FTC taking another look at the COPPA Rule?

Yes, the FTC is currently evaluating the Rule in light of rapid changes in technology. If you would like to comment on the effectiveness of the COPPA Rule and whether changes are needed, the FTC has extended the comment deadline to December 9, 2019.

Where can channel owners go for more information?

A look at the factors in the COPPA Rule will help most channel owners determine if their content is directed to children. If you’re still unsure about how COPPA applies to you, consider contacting an attorney or consulting with one of the COPPA Safe Harbor programs – self-regulatory groups that offer guidance on how operators can comply with the law. Visit the FTC’s website for a list of currently approved Safe Harbor organizations. For more resources, visit the FTC’s Children’s Privacy page for our Six-Step Compliance Plan for Your Business.


It is your choice whether to submit a comment. If you do, you must create a user name, or we will not post your comment. The Federal Trade Commission Act authorizes this information collection for purposes of managing online comments. Comments and user names are part of the Federal Trade Commission’s (FTC) public records system, and user names also are part of the FTC’s computer user records system. We may routinely use these records as described in the FTC’s Privacy Act system notices. For more information on how the FTC handles information that we collect, please read our privacy policy.

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March 23, 2020
I'm not a kid, I'm adult please stop breaki my watching
March 23, 2020
would a daily vlog channel of a highschooler count as made for kids? the FTC has made it VERY VERY VERY confusing. and one little mistake may stop my brother from going to college. I don't want my parents to spend 42k on a youtube channel. If my parents were millionaires then they could easily afford this, but not everybody has the money and I think that's what the FTC has to understand. You can't just expect all of us to pay a fine of 42k and walk away. A lot of us are going to have problems. I'm starting to think that the FTC should have thought this through more. Or instead of a fine made up of a hefty amount of money, you could terminate their channel. That's better then making them pay a sum they might not be able to afford. Or you could take down the videos that violate the rule.
FTC Staff
March 23, 2020

In reply to by Potaeto

 If a channel owner uploads content to a platform like YouTube, the channel might meet the definition of a “website or online service” covered by COPPA, depending on the nature of the content and the information collected. If the content is directed to children and if the channel owner, or someone on its behalf (for example, an ad network), collects personal information from viewers of that content (for example, through a persistent identifier that tracks a user to serve interest-based ads), the channel is covered by COPPA.

Once COPPA applies, the operator must provide notice, obtain verifiable parental consent, and meet COPPA’s other requirements. For information on how to comply with COPPA, read the FTC’s COPPA page for our Six-Step Compliance Plan for Your Business.

March 28, 2020

In reply to by FTC Staff

Why yall have to do this to YouTube creators? There's litterly an app called YouTube kids. The parents should know this by now.
April 14, 2020

In reply to by Jose

Hey FTC or bullies let's play 21 questions so you can see how flawed COPPA is on YouTube. Maybe then you will realize YT kids solved what YT main just cannot do. Jot these questions down for your reference 1st question - what makes a song kids only? What a 4 year old likes is not what a 10, 11, or 12 year old likes. Heck, I was listening to Eminem at the age of 9. So Eminem kids music? Kids like pop, country, rock, rap, and all sorts. Are these kids? Is Christmas music kids only? 2nd question - what makes a game for kids? Is it roblox, minecraft? Both teens and adults like these as well as kids. What about Pokemon? Zelda? Which is also enjoyed by teens and adults as well as adults. 3rd question? What makes a show or movie kids only? Alothough i am 29, do you think I stopped watching spongebob or cartoons I grew up with? Heck I still watch Disney channel and even Nickelodeon. I enjoy teen titans go. Few of my favorites are Coop & Cami, Sydney to the Max, and Just Roll With It. Are they kids only if someone wants to do a review on these shows? Because marking it for kids takes away all our engagement as you know. Is that fair? 4th question - would a child or teenager doing a cover of song or uploading songs they written be considered for kids because of their age? Many young artists are reaching out to all ages to enjoy their music not just kids. So how is it fair to make them mark their content as such? 5th question - what makes words like "fun" or "cool" kids only? Adults use these words as well you know. So if I do a video called "10 fun games" that's now for kids? How does that make sense? 6th question - Why is having your pets in your video considered targeting kids? Adults like cats and dogs and animals too? 7th question - what about vlogging with your family? How is it considered targeting kids just because you have your kids in it most the time? Parents do vlogs to engage. Marking videos as such tares away that engagement. Censorship at its best. 8th question - what about tutorial type videos? Kids like to learn how to draw, play musical instruments, how do certain kinds of sports, horseback riding, so are these videos now for kids? 9th question - what makes toys for kids? Do you realize there are adults that collect toys? Not just kids. Do you see how flawed COPPA is? I don't think COPPA is doing very well and you need to let things go back to the way they were for YouTube. All was working just fine. Also, I would like to know, where is your scientific data that shows that ads cause irreparable damage to kids? You know there's a skip button on YT for ads longer than 20 seconds right?
F the FTC
June 28, 2021

In reply to by FTC Staff

Excuse me? You know what the Bill of Rights says??? Amendment I: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances. Period. Full stop. This COPPA law is in direct violation! The FTC has gone too far. What part of "no law" is misunderstood here? The First Amendment PROHIBITS the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT from making laws like this? George Orwell warned of this in 1948. The FTC is now The Ministry of Truth methinks.
March 23, 2020
WARNING: I don’t think a lot of people like the new COPPA rule, and people have made complaints about it, and the video being blocked due to copyright issues, but a lot of people have been talking about bad stuff happening from COPPA and you might wanna look at those. You have been warned, COPPA. No offense, btw. -CAJ
June 06, 2020

In reply to by Guest

I will not comply with COPPA. I stand with youtubers who are not complying. Sorry but not sorry. This boils down to parents. The government has no right playing nanny.
June 21, 2021
so, what will happen if i were to purposely label my private/hidden videos that are clearly not child friendly (heavy swearing, playing graphic games) as targeted to children to [redacted] with friends (we're all between 17 and 22)? it only states what happens if you mislabel child friendly content as non child friendly but not the other way around nor for content hidden from the general public (either requires a direct link or not viewable at all for anyone but me) how does this all work? i took half an hour searching through various articles but i couldnt find an answer, or even what happens if mislabled as child friendly ps, i had to abuse my tab key to even be able to type this as i couldnt click for some reason greetings from europe
August 19, 2021
I understand the basic principle behind the law, but it seems that Google has implemented ideas that are restricting everyone just to try get everyone mad to get this law overturned. If read this law correctly, it simply means creators should not lie to get young people to their site if not for young people. But users should not be penalized. Simply put, if a user account is labeled as someone who is 13 and under they should not have access to certain things, like free commenting etc, but blocking adults from those features such as making a playlist, is not acceptable. Also there is a gray area here as to what is 13 and younger content etc. Parents should be given more control. Please work with Google to understand the law better.
August 28, 2021
I was trying to watch family while browsing for other tv shows on youtube tv and it said it was for kids. Season 4 episode 28.
June 03, 2022

How u protect my YouTube channel