Merger Retrospective Studies Bibliography

Background

The Bureau of Economics has compiled a list of all merger retrospectives that it could identify that have been published in academic journals or been released by government organizations as studies or working papers. In conducting this search, we defined a merger retrospective as a study having two characteristics:

  • The study must use pre- and post-merger data to examine how market outcomes such as prices, output, or quality changed following mergers.
  • The study must explicitly address how the studied merger(s) may have affected competition.

These restrictions exclude research that use other methodological approaches to determine how mergers affected market outcomes, e.g., examining changes in a firm’s share price around the time of a merger’s announcement. In addition, we exclude studies that examine the impact of mergers generally, but do not explicitly consider how changes in market power resulting from the merger may have affected market outcomes.

The bibliography identifies the title, author(s), journal, and year of publication of the merger retrospective. We have also classified the primary industry(s) studied, the type of merger (horizontal/vertical), and the primary outcome(s) studied (e.g., price, output, or quality). The bibliography only includes studies that have conducted merger retrospectives.

As a result, we are explicitly excluding a number of lines of scholarship related to merger retrospectives that may be helpful to those seeking to better understand or contribute to this literature. A number of researchers have conducted reviews of the retrospective literature. Representative examples include those by Ashenfelter, Hosken, and Weinberg (2014) and Kwoka (2015). In addition, Ilzkovitz and Dierx (2020) have collected a series of papers that provide a detailed description and discussion of the European Union’s experience in using ex post evaluations (including merger retrospectives) in aiding competition policy. Other researchers have used the results of previously published retrospectives as data for further analysis, including recent studies by Kwoka and Gu (2015) and Mariuzzo and Ormosi (2019). Finally, a number of researchers and some international organizations have written papers discussing methodological issues in conducting merger retrospectives, such as Carlton (2009) and the OECD (2015).
Jump to References.

While we have attempted to identify all studies published by government agencies or academic journals, we have almost certainly failed to include some studies in our bibliography. If you know of a paper that should be included in our bibliography, please contact us at retros@ftc.gov.

Note: The Federal Trade Commission does not endorse the views expressed in the studies. The FTC takes no responsibility for, and exercises no control over, the accuracy, copyright or trademark compliance, or legality of the material contained in these studies.

Bibliography

Title Author(s) Journal Year Merger Type(s) Industry Outcome(s)
Market Structure after Horizontal Mergers: Evidence from the Banking Industry Adams, Robert M.; Johnson, Richard L.; Pilloff, Steven J. Review of Industrial Organization 2009 Horizontal Banking Other
Ex-post Analysis of Two Mobile Telecom Mergers: T-Mobile/tele.ring in Austria and T-Mobile/Orange in the Netherlands Aguzzoni, Luca, Buehler, Benno; Di Martile, Luca; Ecker, Georg; Kemp, Ron; Schwarz, Anton; Stil, Robert European Commission, DG Competition, Austrian Regulatory Authority for Broadcasting and Telecommunications, Netherlands Authority for Consumers and Markets 2015 Horizontal Other Prices
A Retrospective Merger Analysis in the U.K. Videogame Market Aguzzoni, Luca; Argentesi, Elena; Buccirossi, Paolo; Ciari, Lorenzo; Duso, Tomaso; Tognoni, Massimo Journal of Competition Law & Economics 2014 Horizontal Consumer Products Prices
Ex Post Merger Evaluation in the U.K. Retail Market for Books Aguzzoni, Luca; Argentesi, Elena; Ciari, Lorenzo; Duso, Tomaso; Tognoni, Massimo Journal of Industrial Economics 2016 Horizontal Retailing Prices
Ex-post Analysis of Mobile Telecom Mergers: The Case of Austria and the Netherlands Aguzzoni, Luca; Buehler, Benno; Di Martile, Luca; Kemp, Ron; Schwarz, Anton De Economist 2018 Horizontal Other Prices
Retail Mergers and Food Prices: Evidence from France Allain, Marie-Laure; Chambolle, Claire; Turolla, Stephane; Villas-Boas, Sofia B. Journal of Industrial Economics 2017 Horizontal Retailing Prices
The Effect of Mergers in Search Markets: Evidence from the Canadian Mortgage Industry Allen, Jason; Clark, Robert; Houde, Jean-Francois American Economic Review 2014 Horizontal Banking Prices
Ex-post Assessment of Merger Control Decisions in Digital Markets Argentesi, Elena; Paolo Buccirossi, Paolo; Calvano, Emilio; Duso, Tomaso; Marrazzo, Alessia; Nava, Salvatore Competition and Markets Authority Report 2019 Horizontal Other Other
The Price Effects of a Large Merger of Manufacturers: A Case Study of Maytag-Whirlpool Ashenfelter, Orley C.; Hosken, Daniel S.; Weinberg, Matthew C. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy 2013 Horizontal Consumer Products Prices
Efficiencies Brewed: Pricing and Consolidation in the US Beer Industry Ashenfelter, Orley C.; Hosken, Daniel S.; Weinberg, Matthew C. RAND Journal of Economics 2015 Horizontal Consumer Products Prices
The Effect of Mergers on Consumer Prices: Evidence from Five Mergers on the Enforcement Margin Ashenfelter, Orley; Hosken, Daniel Journal of Law and Economics 2010 Horizontal Consumer Products Prices
The Price and Profit Effects of Horizontal Merger: A Case Study Barton, David M.; Sherman, Roger Journal of Industrial Economics 1984 Horizontal Other Prices
Do Mergers Increase Product Variety? Evidence from Radio Broadcasting Berry, Steven T.; Waldfogel, Joel Quarterly Journal of Economics 2001 Horizontal Other Variety
Multimarket Contact and Intensity of Competition: Evidence from an Airline Merger Bilotkach, Volodymyr Review of Industrial Organization 2011 Horizontal Airline Other
Does Merger Simulation Work? Evidence from the Swedish Analgesics Market Bjornerstedt, Jonas; Verboven, Frank American Economic Journal: Applied Economics 2016 Horizontal Consumer Products Prices
Evidence for the Effects of Mergers on Market Power and Efficiency Blonigen, Bruce A.; Pierce, Justin R. US Census Bureau Center for Economic Studies 2016 Horizontal Various Markups, Productivity
Airline Mergers, Airport Dominance, and Market Power Borenstein, Severin American Economic Review 1990 Horizontal Airline Prices
Do Horizontal Mergers Induce Entry? Evidence from the US Airline Industry Bougette, Patrice; Hueschelrath, Kai; Muller, Kathrin Applied Economics Letters 2014 Horizontal Airline Other
The Union Pacific/Southern Pacific Rail Merger: A Retrospective on Merger Benefits Breen, Denis A. Review of Network Economics 2004 Horizontal Ground Transport Efficiencies
Changes in Quality of Health Care Delivery after Vertical Integration Carlin, Caroline S.; Dowd, Bryan; Feldman, Roger Health Services Research 2015 Vertical Healthcare Quality
The Impact of Hospital Acquisition of Physician Practices on Referral Patterns Carlin, Caroline S.; Feldman, Roger; Dowd, Bryan Health Economics 2016 Vertical Healthcare Referral Patterns
The Impact of Provider Consolidation on Physician Prices Carlin, Caroline S.; Feldman, Roger; Dowd, Bryan Health Economics 2017 Horizontal, Vertical Healthcare Prices
Are Legacy Airline Mergers Pro- or Anti-competitive? Evidence from Recent U.S. Airline Mergers Carlton, Dennis; Israel, Mark; MacSwain, Ian; Orlov, Eugene International Journal of Industrial Organization 2019 Horizontal Airline Output, Prices
The Impact of Industry Consolidation on Government Procurement: Evidence from Department of Defense Contracting Carril, Rodrigo; Duggan, Mark Journal of Public Economics  2020 Horizontal Other Other
How Does Advertising Depend on Competition? Evidence from U.S. Brewing Chandra, Ambarish; Weinberg, Matthew Management Science  2018 Horizontal Consumer Products Advertising
Mergers in Two-Sided Markets: An Application to the Canadian Newspaper Industry Chandra, Ambarish; Collard-Wexler, Allan Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 2009 Horizontal Other Prices
The Evolution of the Baby Food Industry, 2000-2008 Chen, Viola Journal of Competition Law & Economics 2010 Horizontal Consumer Products Output, Prices
Mergers and Product Quality: Evidence from the Airline Industry Chen, Yongmin; Gayle, Philip G. International Journal of Industrial Organization 2019 Horizontal Airline Quality
A Treatment Effect Method for Merger Analysis with an Application to Parking Prices in Paris Chone, Philippe; Linnemer, Laurent Journal of Industrial Economics 2012 Horizontal Other Prices
Gasoline Price Differences: Taxes, Pollution Regulations, Mergers, Market Power, and Market Conditions Chouinard, Hayley H.; Perloff, Jeffrey M. B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis and Policy: Contributions to Economic Analysis and Policy  2007 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Portfolio Effects in Conglomerate Mergers: The Empirical Evidence of Leverage Effects in Korean Liquor Market Chung, Jinhwa; Jeon, Seonghoon Applied Economics 2014 Conglomerate, Vertical Consumer Products Other
The Effects of Market Concentration Horizontal Mergers on Hospital Costs and Prices Connor, Robert A.; Feldman, Roger D.; Dowd, Bryan E. International Journal of the Economics of Business 1998 Horizontal Healthcare Costs, Prices
Which Types of Hospital Mergers Save Consumers Money? Connor, Robert A.; Feldman, Roger D.; Dowd, Bryan E.; Radcliff, Tiffany A. Health Affairs 1997 Horizontal Healthcare Price
The Price Ain't Right? Hospital Prices and Health Spending on the Privately Insured Cooper, Zack; Craig, Stuart V.; Gaynor, Martin; Van Reenen, John Quarterly Journal of Economics 2019 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
To What Extent Can We Rely on Contestability in Merger Policy? Ex Post Evidence from McGill's/AWS Crocioni, Pietro European Competition Journal 2016 Horizontal Ground Transport Output, Prices
Estimation and Identification of Merger Effects: An Application to Hospital Mergers Dafny, Leemore Journal of Law and Economics 2009 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
Paying a Premium on Your Premium? Consolidation in the US Health Insurance Industry Dafny, Leemore; Duggan, Mark; Ramanarayanan, Subramaniam American Economic Review 2012 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
The Price Effects of Cross-Market Mergers: Theory and Evidence from the Hospital Industry Dafny, Leemore; Ho, Kate; Lee, Robin S. RAND Journal of Economics 2019 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
Effect of Merger on Market Price and Product Quality: American and US Airways Das, Somnath Review of Industrial Organization 2019 Horizontal Airline Prices, Quality
The Price Discrimination Effect of a Large Merger of Parking Garages De Nijs, Romain Economics Letters 2012 Horizontal Other Prices
The Impact of Mergers on Fares Structure: Evidence from European Low-Cost Airlines Dobson, Paul W.; Piga, Claudio A. Economic Inquiry 2013 Horizontal Airline Prices
Hospital Consolidation and Costs: Another Look at the Evidence  Dranove, David; Lindrooth, Richard Journal of Health Economics 2003 Horizontal Healthcare Costs
The Effect of Mergers on Firms' Costs: Evidence from the HMO Industry Engberg, John; Wholey, Douglas; Feldman, Roger; Christianson, Jon B. Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance 2004 Horizontal Healthcare Costs
The Effect of Bank Mergers on Loan Prices: Evidence from the United States Erel, Isil Review of Financial Studies 2012 Horizontal Banking Prices
When Consumer Type Matters: Price Effects of the United-Continental Merger in the Airline Industry Fan, Haobin Economics of Transportation 2020 Horizontal Airline Prices
Effect of Mergers on Health Maintenance Organization Premiums Feldman, Roger; Wholey, Douglas; Christianson, Jon Health Care Financing Review  1996 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
Are Mergers Beneficial to Consumers? Evidence from the Market for Bank Deposits Focarelli, Dario; Panetta, Fabio American Economic Review 2003 Horizontal Banking Prices
Divestiture Requirements as a Tool for Competition Policy: A Case from the Swedish Beer Market Friberg, Richard; Romahn, Andre International Journal of Industrial Organization 2015 Horizontal Consumer Products Prices
Robustness of the Results in GAO’s 2004 Report Concerning Price Effects of Mergers and Concentration Changes in the Petroleum Industry FTC Staff Technical Report Federal Trade Commission 2004 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Bank Mergers and Crime: The Real and Social Effects of Credit Market Competition Garmaise, Mark J.; Moskowitz, Tobias J. Journal of Finance 2006 Horizontal Banking Prices
The Accuracy of Hospital Merger Screening Methods Garmon, Christopher RAND Journal of Economics 2017 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
Hospital Mergers and Antitrust Immunity: The Acquisition of Palmyra Medical Center by Phoebe Putney Health Garmon, Christopher; Kmitch, Laura Journal of Competition Law & Economics 2018 Horizontal Healthcare Prices, Quality
Product Quality Effects of International Airline Alliances, Antitrust Immunity, and Domestic Mergers Gayle, Philip G.; Thomas, Tyson Review of Network Economics 2015 Horizontal Airline Quality
Employment Growth Following Takeovers Geurts, Karen; Van Biesebroeck, Johannes RAND Journal of Economics 2019 Horizontal, Vertical All Employment
Simulating a Homogeneous Product Merger: A Case Study on Model Fit and Performance Greenfield, Daniel; Kreisle, Nicholas M.; Williams, Mark FTC Bureau of Economics Working Paper 2015 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Brewed in North America: Mergers, Marginal Costs, and Efficiency Grieco, Paul; Pinske, Joris; Slade, Margaret International Journal of Industrial Organization 2018 Horizontal Consumer Products Efficiencies
Hospital Mergers and Competitive Effects: Two Retrospective Analyses Haas-Wilson, Deborah; Garmon, Christopher International Journal of the Economics of Business 2011 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California Hastings, Justine S.  American Economic Review 2004 Horizontal, Vertical Petroleum Prices
Market Power, Vertical Integration and the Wholesale Price of Gasoline Hastings, Justine S.; Gilbert, Richard J. Journal of Industrial Economics 2005 Vertical Petroleum Prices
How Mergers Affect Innovation: Theory and Evidence Haucap, Justus; Rasch, Alexander; Stiebale, Joel International Journal of Industrial Organization 2019 Horizontal Other R&D
Hospital Mergers and Acquisitions: Does Market Consolidation Harm Patients? Ho, Vivian; Hamilton, Barton H.  Journal of Health Economics 2000 Horizontal Healthcare Quality
Cementing Relationships: Vertical Integration, Foreclosure, Productivity, and Prices Hortacsu, Ali; Syverson, Chad Journal of Political Economy  2007 Vertical Other Efficiencies, Prices
Do Retail Mergers Affect Competition? Evidence from Grocery Retailing Hosken, Daniel S.; Olson, Luke M.; Smith, Loren K. Journal of Economics & Management Strategy 2018 Horizontal Retailing Prices
Does Concentration Matter? Measurement of Petroleum Merger Price Effects Hosken, Daniel; Silvia, Louis; Taylor, Christopher American Economic Review 2011 Horizontal, Vertical Petroleum Prices
Spatial Differentiation and Vertical Mergers in Retail Markets for Gasoline Houde, Jean-Francois American Economic Review 2012 Horizontal, Vertical Petroleum Prices
The Competitive Effects of Firm Exit: Evidence from the U.S. Airline Industry Huschelrath, Kai; Muller, Kathrin Economics of Transportation 2013 Horizontal Airline Prices
Airline Networks, Mergers, and Consumer Welfare Huschelrath, Kai; Muller, Kathrin Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 2014 Horizontal Airline Prices
Market Power, Efficiencies, and Entry Evidence from an Airline Merger Huschelrath, Kai; Muller, Kathrin Managerial and Decision Economics 2015 Horizontal Airline Prices
Evaluating Mergers in the Australian Petroleum Industry Hyde, Charles E. Economic Record 2002 Horizontal Petroleum Other
Mergers and Difference-in-Difference Estimator: Why Firms Do Not Increase Prices? Jimenez, Juan Luis; Perdiguero, Jordi European Journal of Law and Economics 2018 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Bank Consolidation and the Dynamics of Consumer Loan Interest Rates Kahn, Charles; Pennacchi, George; Sopranzetti, Ben Journal of Business  2005 Horizontal Banking Prices
Can Mergers Increase Output? Evidence from the Lodging Industry Kalnins, Arturs; Froeb, Luke; Tschantz, Steven RAND Journal of Economics 2017 Horizontal Other Output, Prices
The Impact of Mergers in U.S. Petroleum Industry on Wholesale Gasoline Prices Karikari, John A.; Agbara, Godwin; Dezhbakhsh, Hashem; El-Osta, Barbara Contemporary Economic Policy 2007 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
The Union Pacific/Southern Pacific Railroads Merger: Effect of Trackage Rights on Rates Karikari, John Agyei; Brown, Stephen M.; Nadji, Mehrzad Journal of Regulatory Economics 2002 Horizontal Ground Transport Prices
Price Effects of Dutch Hospital Mergers: An Ex-Post Assessment of Hip Surgery Kemp, Ron G. M.; Kersten, Nikki; Severijnen, Astrid M. De Economist 2012 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
Oil Industry Consolidation and Refined Product Prices: Evidence from US Wholesale Gasoline Terminals Kendix, Michael; Walls, W. D. Energy Policy  2010 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Mergers and Market Power: Evidence from the Airline Industry Kim, E. Han; Singal, Vijay American Economic Review 1993 Horizontal Airline Prices
How Vertical Integration Affects the Quantity and Cost of Care for Medicare Beneficiaries Koch, Thomas G.; Wendling, Brett W.; Wilson, Nathan E. Journal of Health Economics 2017 Vertical Healthcare Spending/Costs
The Effects of Physician and Hospital Integration on Medicare Beneficiaries’ Health Outcomes Koch, Thomas G.; Wendling, Brett W.; Wilson, Nathan E. Review of Economics & Statistics Forth-coming Vertical Healthcare Quality
Price Effects of a Merger: Evidence from a Physicians’ Market Koch, Thomas; Ulrick, Shawn W. Economic Inquiry Forth-coming Horizontal Healthcare Prices
Entry and Expansion in UK Merger Cases: An Ex-post Evaluation KPMG Competition and Markets Authority Report 2017 Horizontal Various Entry, Exit
Merger Policy at the Margin: Western Refining's Acquisition of Giant Industries Kreisle, Nicholas Review of Industrial Organization 2015 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Price Effects from the Merger of Agricultural Fertilizer Manufacturers Agrium and PotashCorp Kreisle, Nicholas FTC Bureau of Economics Working Paper 2020 Horizontal Other Prices
The Influence of Mergers on Firms’ Product-mix Strategies Krishnan, Ranjani; Joshi, Satish; Krishnan, Hema Strategic Management Journal 2004 Horizontal Healthcare Other
Market Restructuring and Pricing in the Hospital Industry Krishnan, Ranjani Journal of Health Economics 2001 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
Effects of Hospital Mergers and Acquisitions on Prices Krishnan, Ranjan; Krishnan, Hema Journal of Business Research 2003 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
The Price Effect of Eliminating Potential Competition: Evidence from an Airline Merger Kwoka, John; Shumilkina, Evgenia Journal of Industrial Economics 2010 Horizontal Airline Prices
Effectiveness of Merger Remedies: Evidence from the Retail Gasoline Industry Lagos, Vicente Journal of Industrial Economics 2018 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
An Empirical Analysis of the Price and Output Effects of the Southwest/AirTran Merger Le, Huubinh B. Competition and Regulation in Network Industries 2016 Horizontal Airline Output, Prices
Market Power and Marginal Cost Effects in Competing Markets: Evidence from Airline Mergers Le, Huubinh B.; Yimga, Jules Review of Network Economics 2019 Horizontal Airline Concentration, Efficiencies, Prices
Hospital Systems and Bargaining Power: Evidence from Out-of-Market Acquisitions Lewis, Matthew S.; Pflum, Kevin E. RAND Journal of Economics 2017 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
The Competitive Impact of Vertical Integration by Multiproduct Firms Luco, Fernando; Marshall, Guillermo American Economic Review Forth-coming Vertical Consumer Products Prices
The Price Effects of the Delta/Northwest Airline Merger Luo, Dan Review of Industrial Organization 2014 Horizontal Airline Prices
Journal Pricing and Mergers: A Portfolio Approach McCabe, Mark J. American Economic Review 2002 Horizontal Other Prices
Understanding the Price Effects of the MillerCoors Joint Venture Miller, Nathan H.; Weinberg, Matthew C. Econometrica  2017 Horizontal Consumer Products Prices
Airline Mergers: A Longer View Morrison, Steven A. Journal of Transport Economics and Policy 1996 Horizontal Airline Prices
The Impact of Mergers on Concentration: A Study of Eleven West German Industries Muller, Jurgen Journal of Industrial Economics 1976 Horizontal Various Concentration
The Effects of US Hospital Consolidations on Hospital Quality Mutter, Ryan L.; Romano, Patrick S.; Wong, Herbert S. International Journal of the Economics of Business 2011 Horizontal Healthcare Quality
Ex Post Merger Review: An Evaluation of Three Competition Bureau Merger Assessments Neumann, Mark; Sanderson, Margaret Charles River Associates report for Canadian Competition Bureau 2007 Horizontal Other Revenues, Variety
Evaluating Mergers and Divestitures: A Casino Case Study Osinski, David F.; Sandford, Jeremy A. Journal of Law, Economics & Organization Forth-coming Horizontal Other Output, Prices
Spatial Clustering and Market Power: Evidence from the Retail Gasoline Market Pennerstorfer, Dieter; Weiss, Christoph Regional Science and Urban Economics 2013 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Evaluating the Performance of Merger Simulation: Evidence from the U.S. Airline Industry Peters, Craig Journal of Law and Economics 2006 Horizontal Airline Prices
Ex-Post Evaluation of Mergers in the Supermarket Industry Pires, Tiago; Trindade, Andre Review of Industrial Organization 2018 Horizontal Retailing Prices, Variety
Do Substantial Horizontal Mergers Generate Significant Price Effects? Evidence from the Banking Industry Prager, Robin A.; Hannan, Timothy H. Journal of Industrial Economics 1998 Horizontal Banking Prices
The Impact of Mergers on Quality Provision: Evidence from the Airline Industry Prince, Jeffrey T.; Simon, Daniel H. Journal of Industrial Economics 2017 Horizontal Airline Quality
A Retrospective Analysis of the Clinical Quality Effects of the Acquisition of Highland Park Hospital by Evanston Northwestern Healthcare Romano, Patrick S.; Balan, David J. International Journal of the Economics of Business 2011 Horizontal Healthcare Quality
Mergers and Product Quality: A Silver Lining from De-hubbing in the U.S. Airline Industry Rupp, Nicholas G.; Tan, Kerry M. Contemporary Economic Policy 2019 Horizontal Airline Quality
Transformation and Continuity: The U.S. Carbonated Soft Drink Bottling Industry and Antitrust Policy Since 1980 Saltzman, Harold; Levy, Roy; Hilke, John C. FTC Bureau of Economics Staff Report 1999 Horizontal, Vertical Consumer Products Prices
The Effects of Banking Mergers on Loan Contracts Sapienza, Paola Journal of Finance 2002 Horizontal Banking Output, Prices
Case Studies Of The Price Effects Of Horizontal Mergers Schumann, Laurence; D. Reitzes, James; Rogers, Robert P. FTC Bureau of Economics Staff Report 1992 Horizontal Other Prices
In the Matter of Weyerhaeuser Company: The Use of a Hold-Separate Order in a Merger with Horizontal and Vertical Effects Schumann, Laurence; D. Reitzes, James; Rogers, Robert P. Journal of Regulatory Economics 1997 Horizontal, Vertical Other Prices
The Real Product Market Impact of Mergers Sheen, Albert Journal of Finance 2014 Horizontal Consumer Products Prices, Quality
Petroleum Mergers and Competition in the Northeast United States Silvia, Louis; Taylor, Christopher T. International Journal of the Economics of Business 2013 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Geographic Markets in Hospital Mergers: A Case Study Simpson, John International Journal of the Economics of Business 2003 Horizontal Healthcare Other
Do Gasoline Mergers Affect Consumer Prices? The Marathon Ashland Petroleum and Ultramar Diamond Shamrock Transaction Simpson, John; Taylor, Christopher Journal of Law and Economics 2008 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
A Hybrid Discrete Choice Model of Differentiated Product Demand with an Application to Personal Computers Song, Minjae International Economic Review 2015 Horizontal Other Variety
The Effect of Non-rural Hospital Mergers and Acquisitions: An Examination of Cost and Price Outcomes Spang, Heather Radach; Arnould, Richard J.; Bazzoli, Gloria J. Quarterly Review of Economics & Finance 2009 Horizontal Healthcare Efficiencies, Prices
The Effect Of The Big Eight Accounting Firm Mergers On The Market For Audit Services Sullivan, Mary Journal of Law and Economics 2002 Horizontal Other Efficiencies
Mergers, Capital Gains, and Productivity: Evidence from U.S. Telecommunications Mergers Sung, Nakil; Gort, Michael Contemporary Economic Policy 2006 Horizontal Other Other
Market Foreclosure and Vertical Merger: A Case Study of the Vertical Merger between Turner Broadcasting and Time Warner Suzuki, Ayako International Journal of Industrial Organization 2009 Vertical Other Foreclosure, Prices
The Effects of Mergers on Product Positioning: Evidence from the Music Radio Industry Sweeting, Andrew RAND Journal of Economics 2010 Horizontal Other Prices, Variety
The Economic Effects of the Marathon-Ashland Joint Venture: The Importance of Industry Supply Shocks and Vertical Market Structure Taylor, Christopher T.; Hosken, Daniel S. Journal of Industrial Economics 2007 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Vertical Relationships and Competition in Retail Gasoline Markets: Empirical Evidence from Contract Changes in Southern California: Comment Taylor, Christopher T.; Kreisle, Nicholas M.; Zimmerman, Paul R. American Economic Review 2010 Horizontal, Vertical Petroleum Prices
The Price Effects of Hospital Mergers: A Case Study of the Sutter-Summit Transaction Tenn, Steven International Journal of the Economics of Business 2011 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
The Success of Divestitures in Merger Enforcement: Evidence from the J&J-Pfizer Transaction Tenn, Steven; Yun, John M. International Journal of Industrial Organization 2011 Horizontal Consumer Products Distribution, Prices, Quality
The Effect of Hospital Mergers on Inpatient Prices: A Case Study of the New Hanover-Cape Fear Transaction Thompson, Aileen International Journal of the Economics of Business 2011 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
Hospital Consolidation and Racial/Income Disparities in Health Insurance Coverage Town, Robert J.; Wholey, Douglas R.; Fedlman, Roger D.; Burns, Lawton R. Health Affairs 2007 Horizontal Healthcare Insurance Coverage
Effects of Mergers and Market Concentration in the U.S. Petroleum Industry United States General Accounting Office United States General Accounting Office 2004 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Estimates of the Effects of Mergers and Market Concentration on Wholesale Gasoline Prices United States Government Accountability Office United States Government Accountability Office 2009 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Impacts of Airline Mergers on Passenger Welfare Vaze, Vikrant; Luo, Tian; Harder, Reed Transportation Research: Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review 2017 Horizontal Airline Prices, Welfare
The Competitive Effects of Not-for-Profit Hospital Mergers: A Case Study Vita, Michael G.; Sacher, Seth Journal of Industrial Economics 2001 Horizontal Healthcare Prices
More Evidence on the Performance of Merger Simulations Weinberg, Matthew C. American Economic Review 2011 Horizontal Consumer Products Prices
Evidence on the Accuracy of Merger Simulations Weinberg, Matthew C.; Hosken, Daniel Review of Economics & Statistics 2013 Horizontal Consumer Products Prices
The Effects of Mergers on Price and Output: Two Case Studies from the Airline Industry Werden, Gregory J.; Joskow, Andrew S.; Johnson, Richard L. Managerial and Decision Economics 1991 Horizontal Airline Prices
Does Hospital Competition Reduce Rates of Patient Harm in the English NHS? Whitehouse, Russell; Schiraldi, Pasquale Competition and Markets Authority Working Paper 2019 Horizontal Healthcare Quality
The Economic Impact of Enforcement of Competition Policies on the Functioning of EU Energy Markets Wilkinson, Charu; Duso, Tomaso; Seldeslachts, Jo; Argentesi, Elena; Szücs, Florian W.; Banal-Estanol, Albert; Böckers, Veit; Andrews, Meagan European Commission Report 2016 Horizontal Petroleum Prices
Long-Run Effects of Mergers: The Case of U.S. Western Railroads Winston, Clifford; Maheshri, Vikram; Dennis, Scott M. Journal of Law and Economics 2011 Horizontal Ground Transport Prices
A Retrospective Analysis of the Effects of Airline Mergers on China Eastern's 'Lifeline' Routes: A Difference-in-Differences Approach Zhang, Yahua Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy 2012 Horizontal Airline Prices

References

Ashenfelter, Orley, Daniel Hosken, and Matthew Weinberg. 2014. “Did Robert Bork Understate the Competitive Impact of Mergers? Evidence from Consummated Mergers.” Journal of Law and Economics 57 (3): S67-100

Carlton, Dennis W. 2009. “Why We Need to Measure the Effect of Merger Policy and How to Do It.” Competition Policy International 5 (1): 87–100.

Ilzkovitz, Fabienne and Adriaan Dierx. 2020. Ex Post Economic Evaluation of Competition Policy: The EU Experience.

Kwoka, John. 2015. Mergers, Merger Control, and Remedies: A Retrospective Analysis of U.S. Policy.

Kwoka, John, and Chengyan Gu. 2015. “Predicting Merger Outcomes: The Accuracy of Stock Market Event Studies, Market Structure Characteristics, and Agency Decisions.” Journal of Law and Economics 58 (3): 519–43.

Mariuzzo, Franco, and Peter L. Ormosi. 2019. “Post-Merger Price Dynamics Matters, So Why Do Merger Retrospectives Ignore It?” Review of Industrial Organization 55 (3): 403–29.

OECD (2016) Reference guide on ex-post evaluation of competition agencies’ decisions.