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Pub. L. No. 116-260, 134 Stat. 1182, Division BB, § 109

The No Surprises Act seeks to protect consumers from surprise medical bills arising out of certain out-of-network emergency care. Under Section 109 of the Act, the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS), in consultation with the FTC and the Attorney General, must conduct a study by January 1, 2023, and annually thereafter for each of the following 4 years, on the effects of the Act on any patterns of vertical or horizontal integration of health care facilities, providers, group health plans, or health insurance issuers; overall health care costs; and access to health care.