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Joint brief of the United States and the Federal Trade Commission, as amici curiae, before the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, sitting en banc. The brief addresses the reach of U.S. antitrust law over international restraints of trade, urging the court of appeals to rule that the "import commerce" exception in the Foreign Trade Antitrust Improvements Act is not limited to conduct that specifically targets U.S. import commerce, and that the statute's "direct effects" exception is not limited to effects that follow as an immediate consequence of the challenged conduct.