"The FTC believes that this restriction, which is common with other professionals such as doctors and lawyers, somehow restrains competition." I sincerely believe that you're wrong; the restriction is VERY common amoung professions such as ours and helps create an atmosphere of comradery, mutual respect and civility. The students and their parents are the real determiners of who gets the job of teaching the child. There is NO squelching of competition, excellent reputations and satisified customers with this restriction. Parents freely talk and exchange information about teachers, and the piano students do the same. Almost ALL teacher changes result from the parent or child deciding that a change needs to be made. Sometimes even a teacher will refer a child to another teacher for a better match in personalities, goals or styles of learning/teaching.