YouTube channel owners: Is your content directed to children?

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Under COPPA, how do I know if my channel is “directed to children”? Since the FTC and New York Attorney General announced their September 2019 settlement with YouTube for violations of the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act Rule, we’ve heard that question from channel owners – sometimes called content creators. If you’re a channel owner who shares content on user-generated platforms like YouTube, read on for FTC staff guidance about the applicability of the COPPA Rule and how those covered by the Rule can comply with its requirements.

The FTC action against YouTube and Google

The lawsuit against YouTube and Google alleged that the companies illegally collected personal information from children, in violation of COPPA. According to the complaint, the companies collected that information from viewers of child-directed YouTube channels in the form of persistent identifiers that track users across the Internet, but didn’t notify parents and get their consent. To settle the case, YouTube and Google agreed to create a mechanism so that channel owners can designate when the videos they upload to YouTube are – to use the words of COPPA – “directed to children.” The purpose of this requirement is to make sure that both YouTube and channel owners are complying with the law.

A COPPA recap

That provision of the settlement has raised questions among content creators about how to determine if what they upload to YouTube or other platforms is “directed to children.” The answer requires a brief summary of some key COPPA provisions. Passed by Congress in 1998, the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act is a federal law that protects the privacy of children under 13. COPPA’s foundational principle is one that most people can agree on: Parents – not kids, companies, platforms, or content creators – should be in control when it comes to information collected from children online.

The FTC enforces the law through the COPPA Rule. In general, COPPA requires operators of commercial websites and online services that are directed to children (more about that in a minute) to provide notice and obtain verifiable parental consent before they collect personal information from kids under 13.

The COPPA Rule defines “personal information” to include obvious things like a child’s first and last name or home address, but that’s not all. Under COPPA, personal information also covers what are called persistent identifiers – behind-the-scenes code that recognizes a user over time and across different sites or online services. That could be an IP address or a cookie when it’s used to serve targeted ads. Keep in mind that an operator also might be collecting personal information through an open comment field on its site or service that allows a user under 13 to make personal information publicly available. For example, think of a comment like this on a child-directed site: My name is Mary Jones from Springfield. I love this video!

How COPPA applies to channel owners

So how does COPPA apply to channel owners who upload their content to YouTube or another third-party platform? COPPA applies in the same way it would if the channel owner had its own website or app. If a channel owner uploads content to a platform like YouTube, the channel might meet the definition of a “website or online service” covered by COPPA, depending on the nature of the content and the information collected. If the content is directed to children and if the channel owner, or someone on its behalf (for example, an ad network), collects personal information from viewers of that content (for example, through a persistent identifier that tracks a user to serve interest-based ads), the channel is covered by COPPA. Once COPPA applies, the operator must provide notice, obtain verifiable parental consent, and meet COPPA’s other requirements. For information on how to comply with COPPA, please visit the FTC’s COPPA page for our Six-Step Compliance Plan for Your Business.

How channel owners can determine if their content is directed to children

Under COPPA, there is no one-size-fits-all answer about what makes a site directed to children, but we can offer some guidance. To be clear, your content isn’t considered “directed to children” just because some children may see it. However, if your intended audience is kids under 13, you’re covered by COPPA and have to honor the Rule’s requirements.

The Rule sets out additional factors the FTC will consider in determining whether your content is child-directed:

  • the subject matter,
  • visual content,
  • the use of animated characters or child-oriented activities and incentives,
  • the kind of music or other audio content,
  • the age of models,
  • the presence of child celebrities or celebrities who appeal to children,
  • language or other characteristics of the site,
  • whether advertising that promotes or appears on the site is directed to children, and
  • competent and reliable empirical evidence about the age of the audience.

The determination of whether content is child-directed will be clearer in some contexts than in others, but we can share some general rules of thumb. First, unless you’re affirmatively targeting kids, there are many subject matter categories where you don’t have to worry about COPPA. For example, if your videos are about traditionally adult activities like employment, finances, politics, home ownership, home improvement, or travel, you’re probably not covered unless your content is geared toward kids. The same would be true for videos aimed at high school or college students. On the other hand, if your content includes traditional children’s pastimes or activities, it may be child-directed. For example, the FTC recently determined that an online dress-up game was child-directed.

Second, just because your video has bright colors or animated characters doesn’t mean you’re automatically covered by COPPA. While many animated shows are directed to kids, the FTC recognizes there can be animated programming that appeals to everyone.

Third, the complaint in the YouTube case offers some examples of channels the FTC considered to be directed to children. For example, many content creators explicitly stated in the “About” section of their YouTube channel that their intended audience was children under 13. Other channels made similar statements in communications with YouTube. In addition, many of the channels featured popular animated children’s programs or showed kids playing with toys or participating in other child-oriented activities. Some of the channel owners also enabled settings that made their content appear when users searched for the names of popular toys or animated characters. Want to see the FTC’s analysis in context? Read pages 10-14 of the YouTube complaint.

Finally, if you’ve applied the factors listed in the COPPA Rule and still wonder if your content is “directed to children,” it might help to consider how others view your content and content similar to yours. Has your channel been reviewed on sites that evaluate content for kids? Is your channel – or channels like yours – mentioned in blogs for parents of young children or in media articles about child-directed content? Have you surveyed your users or is there other empirical evidence about the age of your audience?

What are the possible penalties for violating COPPA?

The Rule allows for civil penalties of up to $42,530 per violation, but the FTC considers a number of factors in determining the appropriate amount, including a company’s financial condition and the impact a penalty could have on its ability to stay in business. While Google and YouTube paid $170 million, in another COPPA case settled this year, the operator paid a total civil penalty of $35,000.

Isn’t the FTC taking another look at the COPPA Rule?

Yes, the FTC is currently evaluating the Rule in light of rapid changes in technology. If you would like to comment on the effectiveness of the COPPA Rule and whether changes are needed, the FTC has extended the comment deadline to December 9, 2019.

Where can channel owners go for more information?

A look at the factors in the COPPA Rule will help most channel owners determine if their content is directed to children. If you’re still unsure about how COPPA applies to you, consider contacting an attorney or consulting with one of the COPPA Safe Harbor programs – self-regulatory groups that offer guidance on how operators can comply with the law. Visit the FTC’s website for a list of currently approved Safe Harbor organizations. For more resources, visit the FTC’s Children’s Privacy page for our Six-Step Compliance Plan for Your Business.



I have been on YouTube for the past 5 years now and while I am a smaller channel than most, I do understand a lot about this new YouTube guideline with COPPA. I am 18 years old and I make music videos with stuffed animals called Webkinz. One of the features that will be removed if COPPA goes through will be comments and notifications. Since I have a small channel, notifications are helpful when my subscribers will be alerted whenever I upload and the comment section of my videos are really helpful when discussing things with other people in this community, who are mostly teenage girls. If I lose the comment section, it will be more difficult to talk with my online peers and improve my channel as a whole. Another thing that bothers me is that there is only two options for uploading YouTube content: "made for kids" and "not made for kids". Most of the other people in this small community, including myself, consists of teenage girls from 13-19 years of age, making music videos and series featuring Webkinz. Our channels are usually kid-friendly but they're not made with kids and young children in mind. The content is aimed at other teenagers or just general audiences. Only having two options puts our channels in a tight spot, much like most other general audience YouTubers.

What about non-monetized channels like myself?

Ok, lets start off with this:
I see that your trying to improve the way of seperating content for different audiences.
But these rules draw the line.

Firstly, doing this ruins millions of careers for people on youtube or other apps. I'm a teen and i wanted to start an animation channel, but i cant due to violence being seperated by cartoons. I'm pretty sure
That im talking for everyone when i say that COPPA will just ruin everything.

Now correct me if im wrong but that'll also ruin people that make tv shows that are cartoon based like rick and morty and cartoons that are aimed at kids but break the rules here.

Now kid content will just be those 'abc 123 learning for kids' everywhere. Some people like me want action, drama, entertainment but now its all taken.

Adult content will most likley be the same but missing the spice.

Your list is also odd, music? Adult content isnt allowed music? Seeing my childhood, im already annoyed about article 13 going around and about but this seems even worse.

so now i will stop seeing those cool youtubers that just want to entertain their audience, ill stop seeing most youtubers due to these effects and i cannot complete my dream of animating something for everyone.

You can do the following to fix this:
Dont do it
Add a mixed section where these rules dont apply.
Remove simple things like music, cmon, its music, 2019 kids dont care

Fix this,
Do it for everyone

My content is directed and suitable for all audiences.

Instead of having content creators decide who their demographic is and potentially risk being sued for up to 42,000$ for making a mistake in that process, would it not be easier and less lawsuit-inducing for Youtube to just cease data collection and personalized ads on accounts whose users are under 13? Because specifying one's age is required to make a Google account, would this process not solve the issue entirely?

Many adults like kid appropriate content too, as some things normally associated with children (like Pokémon) have been around for a while and still have adult fans. How will cases like that be handled? Y’all stated that content that appeals to all ages won’t be hurt, but there’s the problem. Anything directed at kids will always, without a doubt, have teen and adult viewers. The system is fundamentally flawed as either nothing will change, or content for all ages will be harmed.

You have to be over 13 to even be on YouTube. How will this even work?

Hello there. Even if you have told me the good news for the animators, I'm still a little shaken by the news.

So if I understand this correctly, my 12 year old daughter and her friends who are seriously into dressage (horsemanship) watch youtube channels and videos that are created not specifically for children but instead for the entire audience of those who are interested in the sport/hobby/lifestyle are then putting those creators at 'risk' of being fined by the FTC for having watched their content? How on earth are you able to lump together what interests a 10-12 year old might have versus a 7-9 year old much less those even 'younger'. Do any of you law makers have children? Do you not realize that there is a massive difference in interests of the sub age groups of 'under 13'? Also, after having read the entire COPPA details it states that it's to protect against data-collection. Content creators do not collect any of the data you've listed - any information/data that is collected by the 'platform' is never shared with the content creators so how can they be held accountable under COPPA?

Why are youtube creators being punished for parents not being able to parent their kids?

Now, after some time and some light research, I have come to a conclusion that many other commenters may come to. The people that run the FTC are not very caught up with the rest of our current culture. Our current Pop-culture, our current understandings, our current communication systems, and our current way of our world. I say this because,:from what I have heard, some of these people don't even have phones, and I say that without exaggeration. So, knowing that, and a little more, it's reasonable to say that the people running the FTC and revising COPPA don't understand why anything that they say is going to happen, could upset people, and as an example, or rather several examples: Animation, the animation/cartoon/drawing communities, as well as gaming, toy reviewers, food reviewers, toy collectors, or even bronies and furries, all are communities of people and creators, (or "influencers") that all are at heavy risk, and that is because of the "cartoonish characters" that could be associated with their crafts and communities, now, to anyone that knew these things even existed before this comment, good for you, you have seen the internet. But to those of you who did not, I request that you educate yourselves on what those after you or before you are doing with the world around you, and if you are an official in the government, I request, no, nearly demand, that before you even begin, to suggest certain reformations of law, or new creations of law(s), you educate yourselves heavily, on every topic you can that could be even lightly effected by the laws you seek to build, and if that sounds like too much effort to you as an individual, then you should dismiss yourself from the governmental position you possess entirely and immediately.

My videos will be rated E for everyone

Are you aware that there is a separate platform called "YouTube Kids" that is specifically meant for children's content?

I know that you giys are teying to keep children safe and NOT against that but I don't think it's far that some of these hardworking youtubers and creators to be pushed aroumd and tell what they can and can't make vidoes of. I know a Husband and Wife that doses fanatic gameplay videos and they never ever use profanity but yet Coppa is putting them into a corner due to the fact all their content is Fan based. Please leave good Youtube as is. Thank You.

Thanks for the “protection” FTC. I was so worried that a 4 year old that uses a 13+ website would have been manipulated by advertisements that could have been prevented if parents actually did something about their children. Nooooo, lets just do what the non-responsible adult parent should do on their own. Instead, lets make it so that we simply don’t care and or give proper reason for implementing this literal brain dead option and completely throw people that use this site for their livelihood into the street, because we decided to protect irresponsible parents and their choice to break an important rule of YouTube since they (like you unfortunately) believe YouTube is used by no one but children. ... Get out of there. Get your genuinely terrible rule off of YouTube. Your implemented rule combined with your Potentially Outdated Stigmas, outside of the printed documents, are gonna ruin many favourite animators, figure collectors, gamers, and more for adults on YouTube to use for entertainment. The documents may change, but who’s to say that we, the actual consumers of the site, can relay on your help to manage a site that wasn’t ever intended for children under the age of 13 to begin with. Finding the content creators is wrong in general and I cannot believe that with so much negative reception towards your aid for irresponsible and possibly dilutional parents, you are willing to continue to push such slobber onto an otherwise great platform and destroy millions of people’s carries. Disgusting. Pack your things and focus on some other problem that actually deserves your attention.

What about animes like Pokémon? Kids watch but there are any teens and adults fans of those. When our content is for mixed audience what are we supposed to do? I still have no idea if i should set my channel as for kids or adults if it has mixed audience

Wait, no one under the age of 13 is allowed to use YouTube so why is there any discussion going on here? Why is COPPA even applied to YouTube? Does COPPA apply to pornhub and xvideos? I bet there are plenty of 12 year old kids looking at those sites and commenting on videos. Fine the parents of kids that lie about their age.

Hi there FTC. If you are reading this, we are pretty much content creators/Youtubers on the community. We can’t look out for people’s kids because we are content creators, not babysitters. Parents need to take care of their Children properly, not let their kids go on the internet and lie about their age, cyberbully etc. It wouldn’t be our fault if their parents see their kids watching something that is not suitable for them. It is the parents fault for not looking after their children. Thank you for this information but please understand this. Thank you!

If Your Channel Is Not Monetized Will Your Channel Still Be Flagged?

How About The Viewers Account is Set To Kids Or Not For Kids Instead Of The Tuber

Please consider all of the DYI content providers that are freaking out because this is a real source of income and, like my wife, they believe that they are going to suffer because it is mixed content and they are afraid of being put out of business. If the content is put under YouTube Kids, is it still making money for the DIYers? Isn't there a more feasible approach? I turned in an idea months ago that I felt would solve a lot of problems for everyone and never heard anything about it, plus it was YouTube staff friendly meaning that it wasn't going to cost YouTube anymore to implement.

This going make more problems, there will be less kid content on the platform. Two it was YouTube that was collecting the data, how creators were know those features were collected data? YouTube should take full responsibility instead cause in future lawsuits against this law and should let folks what going on in first place.

GOOD luck Federal Trade Fommission

What if animations or games not for kids but looks like directed-for-kids??? Like uses bad language (Example:SMG4)

What music is geared towards kids?? I get music like baby shark is but what about instrumental music or music like EDM and dubstep? Or even music gear review videos? This is all too vague. Someone please help! I make retro electronic music and do music gear reviews. Am i safe??

my video is not for kids

I also worry about the labeling, because I make my videos for everyone, I post them for people to laugh, if it's a bit questionable I'll put a warning in the title or description

What if i mark my videos as 18+ will i have the risk of getting fined?

If your lying and it has kid directed content, then yes.

Thank you for extending the comments period and for recognising that in this nostalgia filled age and where many western animations are attempting to deal with more mature issues, content discussing things like animation may often not be aimed at children.
Audience viewing metrics could be useful to determine who is consuming such content too.

Most importantly, as the FTC has spurred Google to make their proposed changes, by allowing them this 'compromise', the FTC should bear some duty of responsibility in making sure Google invests sufficient time and money in implementing it's share of the changes, in a way that won't simply destroy a lot of small business, with no reasonable means for appeal.

How will I know if my content is safe or not from a fine ? Because it wasnt really specific on what are videos should look like for kids and what it shouldn’t look like for not for kids

While i appreciate that you wrekonize that animation is not just for children there are some that aren’t for children at all. Have you ever heard about family guy or south park or any of adult swim’s content e.g. Rick and Morty and robot chicken? There all cartoons and clearly not for children as the Name imply. The whole languige thing also makes me raise an eyebrow like i understanding Mommy or daddy but even those Words are sometimes used for sexualy active partners and the Words you examplify i wouln’d say are so kid orienten as you say they are. Both these things seem to be considered kids content because you think they are or because you’ve heard everyone else say it (age stereotypes) and if that’s the reason i don’t think it they should be imploderar to your rules about what makes a video armed at children.

Are you allowed to say words such as crap, or freaking on a child directed channel or will you get fined?
I’m very concerned please reply soon.

What if some videos you’ll make in the future are NOT kid friendly, but the ones right now are? I’ll be making Fran Bow content, so that’s directed above 13.

Are all shooting/gun games not kid friendly

Im sorry...
But I think no one likes the new coppa update in youtube...
Im just wondering can you please just not do the coppa update?
Just let the parents do the parenting...and don't let the users that hasn't logged in watch videos...
And don't let users to delete history videos...
So the parents can see what their kids are watching...please.....

It would be better if instead of categorizing kids, and adults, they just put a filter so "kids" can't share private information. They have systems like this on lots of popular games with chat. It would be much less a hassle of categorizing everything. What about if we want to share our content with "kids" and "teens"? Yes having a mixed option would be good, but why have to filter out content in the first place. Filtering the comments so kids can't share information would be much more simpler. -It would be nice if COPPA or youtube would consider this.

I understand the concern of parents and the FTC. However, I feel there are some problems regarding the implementation of COPPA on content creators. For one thing, the guidelines for what constitutes content that is "directed to children". I personally feel it is unfair for content creators to be punished for the actions of user-generated platforms. If COPPA goes into effect, it will become the responsibility of content creators for the actions of the individuals who are in charge of the platform. I encourage the FTC to reconsider COPPA. If any action must be taken to enforce these guidelines, I feel the consequences should fall to the those in charge of the platform and not those who make content for the platform and have no say over what the platform does. Thank you for taking the time to read this comment.

Why even have a mixed content? We don't need to "age" filter at all...Instead why not just filter comments.There are plenty of games, and sites, that use filter chat so that "kids" can't share private information online. YouTube could have looked into this also. -It would be nice if YouTube would look into this- It would be much simpler for viewers, and creators.We shouldn't be mad at creators of kids. It's not there fault (older kids should know better though). YouTube should have thought of this in the first place.

There is one thing I do not understand. Does the $ 42,530 kernel happen if we use children illegally for our videos, or whenever our videos are misclassified? if I say that my video is not for kids, but YouTube thinks otherwise, am I paying $ 42530 for the almond, or not?

I have an interesting question: If you point out in the video (i.e. In the title, beginning and ends of the video, and in the description) that your content is for an audience of 13 or over, does that comply with COPPA? The reason why I am asking this is because if the creator puts an age warning stating that the video is meant for older audiences, then that should mean the creator pointed out their target audience, though, I might've missed something while researching.

Regulations are not going to stop kids from lying about their age to access content or use online services. Though your regulations state protection of children as your goal, the unintended consequences, the cumulative effect of YouTube having lost major advertisers due harmful videos and the way YouTube is using this law as an excuse to discourage any content creators from making videos for children by removing any incentives to create and removing ability for children to find or follow the creators. My children absolutely love a Minecraft YouTuber and use the platform for various educational and nature videos. I love to watch tutorials and tips on watercolor painting. I also learned how to change the cabin air filter in my car and various other helpful videos. I don’t think what the FTC is proposing with COPPA I has I’ll intentions. It isnYouTube’s undermining approach, using COPPA an excuse, to win back lost advertisers. However, I do believe government restrictions are overreaching the bounds, parents have the rights and responsibilities to restrict or allow their children’s actions.

What about gaming channels that play games that might appeal to kids like fortnite or pokemon. These games could be considered kids games but adults play them too and we can't control who watches our videos. What if you play these games but your content not made for kids . Would you consider it for kids content the rules are to vague and make it open to interpretation which is a problem for creators trying to comply with them.

There is a significant and obvious flaw in the mentality behind this law, and that is in the creation of "kid's content" as an absolute and distinct form of criteria.
COPPA is United States law, but it applies globally to all communities across every culture. What applies as "kid directed content" in one society is different to what is even considered appropriate for adults in another. Even within different subsets of a nation's population, different people are going to decide what is "for kids" in different ways. In addition, over the course of time, these standards will inevitably change within the context of every society. This law sets out to create an utterly vague and culturally tone-deaf definition of what "kid's content" is defined to be.
The problem is that it is entirely subjective as to what constitutes "kid's content". It's an opinion, more than fact, whether set of identifiers REALLY counts as "kid's content". US law presumes to define one standard that all societies across the world are to be legally bound to? Is that even Constitutionally sound? This seems like it could potentially cross into the territory of a violation of free speech/expression.
This is a matter that has potentially disastrous legal consequences on certain content creators who exist somewhere between the general audience exception and "kid's content", so you NEED to outline an absolutely exact set of criteria as to what qualifies as, beyond ANY form of ambiguity, "kid's content". But how can that possibly be done fairly on a global level and context when the definitions of what counts as "kid's content" differs between cultures and generations? And these standards/outlines have to somehow be applicable within every society and culture, and be amended in light of changes throughout generations, which is exceedingly unlikely to happen. The current outlines are unacceptably vague, and because of this, it is almost guaranteed that many innocent content creators will face penalties where it is not remotely warranted.
Why not instead focus on the real problem in this situation; the gathering of personal data? Personal data should not be obtained through YouTube, Google, Facebook or any other website in any way, regardless of the age of the user. ANYONE can become a victim through the misuse/misappropriation of their online information. Security measures should be put in place that make the misuse of people's personal information far less likely to occur. Then, it wouldn't matter whether kids lie about their age to create a YouTube account. They won't become victims if YouTube (or other entities) are unable to SHARE that personal information.
Another thought: what if you delete your entire channel in an attempt to avoid violating the law? Let's say a certain video on your channel wound up being viewed mostly by kids. Personalized ads were present and the kid's personal data was involved. Are you now guilty of violating COPPA? Can YouTube or FTC go through the records of how and where kids' information was gathered and find your video(s)/channel to be guilty, even if you had no possible way to know? Then what?

what about Kids actors in horror movie on youtube?


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