YouTube channel owners: Is your content directed to children?

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Under COPPA, how do I know if my channel is “directed to children”? Since the FTC and New York Attorney General announced their September 2019 settlement with YouTube for violations of the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act Rule, we’ve heard that question from channel owners – sometimes called content creators. If you’re a channel owner who shares content on user-generated platforms like YouTube, read on for FTC staff guidance about the applicability of the COPPA Rule and how those covered by the Rule can comply with its requirements.

The FTC action against YouTube and Google

The lawsuit against YouTube and Google alleged that the companies illegally collected personal information from children, in violation of COPPA. According to the complaint, the companies collected that information from viewers of child-directed YouTube channels in the form of persistent identifiers that track users across the Internet, but didn’t notify parents and get their consent. To settle the case, YouTube and Google agreed to create a mechanism so that channel owners can designate when the videos they upload to YouTube are – to use the words of COPPA – “directed to children.” The purpose of this requirement is to make sure that both YouTube and channel owners are complying with the law.

A COPPA recap

That provision of the settlement has raised questions among content creators about how to determine if what they upload to YouTube or other platforms is “directed to children.” The answer requires a brief summary of some key COPPA provisions. Passed by Congress in 1998, the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Act is a federal law that protects the privacy of children under 13. COPPA’s foundational principle is one that most people can agree on: Parents – not kids, companies, platforms, or content creators – should be in control when it comes to information collected from children online.

The FTC enforces the law through the COPPA Rule. In general, COPPA requires operators of commercial websites and online services that are directed to children (more about that in a minute) to provide notice and obtain verifiable parental consent before they collect personal information from kids under 13.

The COPPA Rule defines “personal information” to include obvious things like a child’s first and last name or home address, but that’s not all. Under COPPA, personal information also covers what are called persistent identifiers – behind-the-scenes code that recognizes a user over time and across different sites or online services. That could be an IP address or a cookie when it’s used to serve targeted ads. Keep in mind that an operator also might be collecting personal information through an open comment field on its site or service that allows a user under 13 to make personal information publicly available. For example, think of a comment like this on a child-directed site: My name is Mary Jones from Springfield. I love this video!

How COPPA applies to channel owners

So how does COPPA apply to channel owners who upload their content to YouTube or another third-party platform? COPPA applies in the same way it would if the channel owner had its own website or app. If a channel owner uploads content to a platform like YouTube, the channel might meet the definition of a “website or online service” covered by COPPA, depending on the nature of the content and the information collected. If the content is directed to children and if the channel owner, or someone on its behalf (for example, an ad network), collects personal information from viewers of that content (for example, through a persistent identifier that tracks a user to serve interest-based ads), the channel is covered by COPPA. Once COPPA applies, the operator must provide notice, obtain verifiable parental consent, and meet COPPA’s other requirements. For information on how to comply with COPPA, please visit the FTC’s COPPA page for our Six-Step Compliance Plan for Your Business.

How channel owners can determine if their content is directed to children

Under COPPA, there is no one-size-fits-all answer about what makes a site directed to children, but we can offer some guidance. To be clear, your content isn’t considered “directed to children” just because some children may see it. However, if your intended audience is kids under 13, you’re covered by COPPA and have to honor the Rule’s requirements.

The Rule sets out additional factors the FTC will consider in determining whether your content is child-directed:

  • the subject matter,
  • visual content,
  • the use of animated characters or child-oriented activities and incentives,
  • the kind of music or other audio content,
  • the age of models,
  • the presence of child celebrities or celebrities who appeal to children,
  • language or other characteristics of the site,
  • whether advertising that promotes or appears on the site is directed to children, and
  • competent and reliable empirical evidence about the age of the audience.

The determination of whether content is child-directed will be clearer in some contexts than in others, but we can share some general rules of thumb. First, unless you’re affirmatively targeting kids, there are many subject matter categories where you don’t have to worry about COPPA. For example, if your videos are about traditionally adult activities like employment, finances, politics, home ownership, home improvement, or travel, you’re probably not covered unless your content is geared toward kids. The same would be true for videos aimed at high school or college students. On the other hand, if your content includes traditional children’s pastimes or activities, it may be child-directed. For example, the FTC recently determined that an online dress-up game was child-directed.

Second, just because your video has bright colors or animated characters doesn’t mean you’re automatically covered by COPPA. While many animated shows are directed to kids, the FTC recognizes there can be animated programming that appeals to everyone.

Third, the complaint in the YouTube case offers some examples of channels the FTC considered to be directed to children. For example, many content creators explicitly stated in the “About” section of their YouTube channel that their intended audience was children under 13. Other channels made similar statements in communications with YouTube. In addition, many of the channels featured popular animated children’s programs or showed kids playing with toys or participating in other child-oriented activities. Some of the channel owners also enabled settings that made their content appear when users searched for the names of popular toys or animated characters. Want to see the FTC’s analysis in context? Read pages 10-14 of the YouTube complaint.

Finally, if you’ve applied the factors listed in the COPPA Rule and still wonder if your content is “directed to children,” it might help to consider how others view your content and content similar to yours. Has your channel been reviewed on sites that evaluate content for kids? Is your channel – or channels like yours – mentioned in blogs for parents of young children or in media articles about child-directed content? Have you surveyed your users or is there other empirical evidence about the age of your audience?

What are the possible penalties for violating COPPA?

The Rule allows for civil penalties of up to $42,530 per violation, but the FTC considers a number of factors in determining the appropriate amount, including a company’s financial condition and the impact a penalty could have on its ability to stay in business. While Google and YouTube paid $170 million, in another COPPA case settled this year, the operator paid a total civil penalty of $35,000.

Isn’t the FTC taking another look at the COPPA Rule?

Yes, the FTC is currently evaluating the Rule in light of rapid changes in technology. If you would like to comment on the effectiveness of the COPPA Rule and whether changes are needed, the FTC has extended the comment deadline to December 9, 2019.

Where can channel owners go for more information?

A look at the factors in the COPPA Rule will help most channel owners determine if their content is directed to children. If you’re still unsure about how COPPA applies to you, consider contacting an attorney or consulting with one of the COPPA Safe Harbor programs – self-regulatory groups that offer guidance on how operators can comply with the law. Visit the FTC’s website for a list of currently approved Safe Harbor organizations. For more resources, visit the FTC’s Children’s Privacy page for our Six-Step Compliance Plan for Your Business.



The complaint in the YouTube case offers some examples of channels the FTC considered to be directed to children. For example, many content creators explicitly stated in the “About” section of their YouTube channel that their intended audience was children under 13. Other channels made similar statements in communications with YouTube. In addition, many of the channels featured popular animated children’s programs or showed kids playing with toys or participating in other child-oriented activities. Some of the channel owners also enabled settings that made their content appear when users searched for the names of popular toys or animated characters. Read pages 10-14 of the YouTube complaint to see the FTC’s analysis in context.

This is too broad of a stroke I am an adult and more than half of the media listed by you to be geared towards children apeals to me as the context of the orignal writing of this law was made during the age where I was a child I have grown since and my tastes and manner of speach have remained please reconsider how this law is meant to be enforced, as although I am an artist myself and make works that appeal to all ages. If a user states they are above the age of 13 then the adult responsible should be held responsible for it if they are committing perjury.

I want to animate content to upload on YouTube. I don't want to advertise this content, I just want to upload for everyone to watch, and I have some questions about how this will affect me:
1. I don't want to advertise my content, so how would I mark my channel if it's "Kid Friendly" or not?

2. ( This video shows what will happen to animation content if they want to not be marked "Kid
Friendly" I don't want to do this, so how would this be applied to the content I want to upload?

3. I don't have the money to pay a fine of up to $42,530 nor do I have the ability to pay for a lawyer if the fine is taken to court. What would I do
then (if this were to happen)?

4. How would not advertising my content affect my choice of being "Kid Friendly" or not/ getting fined?

I would appreciate it if I could get a response soon, so I would know what to do about the animated content I want to upload. I would also appreciate it if it was explained how not advertising my content would also affect me (The chance of getting fined, and how I would mark my content on the platform)?

The law states that it is about children being the browser, and interacting with the device. Some children’s content will be accessed by the parent, so surely there is no breach of COPPA in those cases. This is not about what children are watching, it is about who is clicking on the the thumbnail. Creators need to be able to submit empirical evidence, so they can have assurance that they are not breaching COPPA.

What happened to the first amendment?

My daughter has been working hard on her videos and she wants to keep working on them over the years.

So why do you have to take 90 percent of the creator's revenue if its directed to kids

Please make YouTube better by helping out YouTubers who break the law without knowing they did and please look at channel that are kid friendly and see if they are really kid friendly and please make sure to help tell parents that they should watch what are the kids are doing in the internet.

Please understand that it is the parents job to watch what their kid is watching, it is not your job or YouTube's job.

The COPPA rule in it's current form is not specific enough in its definition of what constitutes programming directed to children. My specific concern is that owners of channels that teach the making of and display hand made journals and books seem to fall into a huge crack. The journals and books and the images that fill them may in fact be bright, cheerful, colorful and include Disney and Disney-ish pictures, but the content is specifically directed at adults who have the skills and wisdom to use the tools required to produce these journals and books. I'm sure people involved in other creative hobbies could tell a similar story. Please do not enact COPPA as it is currently written.

The complaint in the YouTube case offers some examples of channels the FTC considered to be directed to children. For example, many content creators explicitly stated in the “About” section of their YouTube channel that their intended audience was children under 13. Other channels made similar statements in communications with YouTube. In addition, many of the channels featured popular animated children’s programs or showed kids playing with toys or participating in other child-oriented activities. Some of the channel owners also enabled settings that made their content appear when users searched for the names of popular toys or animated characters. Read pages 10-14 of the YouTube complaint to see the FTC’s analysis in context.

please stop replying with something we've already read

I have read the new standers you are putting on YouTube content creators is not right when it comes to Anima, because lumping all animation together is not correct. Yes a lot of animation is for kids, but most is ment for people ages 16 and up. I understand that a large majority of the people that work for the F.T.C. do not watch or understand anima, but you should do some due diligence and research the differences in all types of anima.

PLEASE! Most of us create content for a mixed-up audience. Put a "Directed to mixed-up audience" category on Youtube. It would be simple for all of us. PLEASE!

If you're going to threaten to sue content creators around 35-42 thousand dollars or should be much more specific about your guidelines. A lot of the language here is contradictory or vague at best.

It is the parents responsibility to control what their children watch. Fining content creators will not solve anything, but I am guessing that coppa doesn’t actually want to fix anything they just want to take money and this is what they come up with as an excuse to do so.

the only thing COPPA will do for children is get rid of videos directed towards them. with the huge losses that a creator takes from making a video for kids, no one will want to do it. The terms are also way too vague and don't express clearly what is and isn't for kids

I understand why this law was considered, but there is something people need to understand. YouTube is not a free TV service, It's a platform where individuals can share their creations to the world and see the reactions of others to said creations. Recently, people have been uploading full episodes of children's cartoons and other "kid-friendly" content in order to manipulate YouTube's algorithm and make a profit off of it. Parents are now under the assumption that all of YouTube should follow in these channels footsteps. This is not the case. YouTube should not be used by very young children and people need to understand that it is not a platform to watch television programs on.

Creators should not be punished for parents not supervising their children. These laws are too vague and should be revised. You tube is collecting data...not the makers...figure this out.

As a viewer of YouTube, and as a Mother and Grandmother I know that Children are naturally inquisitive about everything, so how would a creator ever be able to make a video about anything without a child wanting to watch it! And what YouTube and Google did was not the fault of the Video Creators, YouTube and Google were the ones collecting IP Address's or names and personal information, they were the one's running the website, just like they have collected all personal data on everyone that has ever crossed their internet path. I ask that you please look to a different solution, such as the parents allowing the children to use their devices and accessing YouTube only under a child's login account.

What kind of music would be specifically could be directed to kids?

i know that this is just to protect kids, but whatever law you make, it will always be parents and community that make them safe from any content. go to places where crime can be seen by kids and thought that its just normal. do youtube content have something to do with what they will acquire? there is youtube kids that my son use and its enough son to view appropriate content. even normal tv channels will show lots of appealing to kids advertisements, how would they comply with this vague law?

how do a youtube channel get report to ftc ?

What if my my channel is neutral like anyone can watch it but it sometimes not made for kids since sometimes i put like people shooting like first person shooting games am I still violating it

FTC... You are not answering a single comment or question here, so why have a comment section? My content is not "MADE FOR" kids, but is perfectly appropriate for them to view. YOU HAVE NO ANSWER TO THIS SCENARIO.

It seems a bit excessive. Maybe just disable info gathering on YouTube without penalizing content creators.

oh come on, not even animators are safe? hol up, idea, just post some inappropriate animated content and see if they mark that as "for kids"

This is killing YouTube! Please stop this. This is nonsense. So many you tubers are going to loose their jobs. This is not YouTube’s fault, because you aren’t even allowed to have a YouTube account under the age of 13. It is the parents that are supposed to watch their kids watching stuff on YouTube, not YouTube babysitting the children. Please stop this COPPA thing and let us enjoy YouTube with how it was and how everyone enjoyed it.

Easy fix! Just don't allow YouTube and Google to collect information! How difficult is that? This is more confusing and bureaucratic nonsense. With idiotic rules and regulations we are creeping ever more closely to the precipice of totalitarianism.

It's time for parents to step up to the plate and monitor the content their child is watching. It is not up to the rest of us to do that!

Greetings FTC,
Thank you for taking the time to read my post.
As you can see by the name I choose to use today to write you I am not a YouTube Channel creator, but a mere fan.
Over the years as a fan who views videos I have come to enjoy certain content avenues.
Many videos I enjoy I could easily see become entangled in a new kind of legal web what some call in legal terms the "grey area".
( Not advertised for kids under 13, yet not enough to classify their content as rated R like you would for a movie. )
What may appear to be a simple solution could suddenly lead to many unintentional consequences.

To me I have always considered YouTube videos made by content creators to be "Home Made Fan Videos".
Videos that are made by those who at times enjoy doing something they are passionate about.
Soon some of these creators decided to take that passionate hobby and make it into a way of living.
Yet over the years like anything created I can whole heartily understand from those who believe in certain
unforeseen cruelty and concerns that their children may be taken advantage of by others. No one wants that to happen to them.

Again many of these YouTube content creators are individuals who probably have never had any invested interest in governance and regulations
to begin with. They just make these videos for their fans to enjoy. They're not a major television outlet.
Never realizing they may now need certain legal council just to know if there videos
are in compliance, and even then that recourse may not be financially viable for them at that time.

Again as a very important reminder in this situation it was the companies that agreed to the settlement.
The actual content creators that use the YouTube platform everyday may or were probably unaware of this situation that had taken place.
The content creators may have not even had a say in that discussion or recourse
in this entire process so I can only and sincerely ask the FTC to please keep this in consideration in regards to how you decide
where to take this regulation/law going hereon.

Since you are politely allowing everyone a chance to include a final opportunity to say anything on this matter and again I thank you for this
here is what I would like to add to this discussion for consideration:

1. From what I understand YouTube already has a channel focused for children called YouTube Kids.
I listened today from a YouTube content creator an idea that may help in some regard:
That proposition is if people who wish to use or watch regular YouTube you must first create an account to view the content on YouTube.
If need be you can also request to help show proof of permission as in having to make a phone call or send a confirmation
to their email address for the first time when creating an account.
This is already done when it comes to logging on certain websites.
From now on if you wish to watch videos on YouTube you must first have a registered account to log in to view the content on YouTube.
This proposition is only for YouTube and not YouTube Kids since YouTube Kids is meant to be a website for all ages.

2. I also agree with the individual who mentioned General Audience option for YouTube videos.
As someone who enjoys playing video games we already have a volunteer system that is still used today called the ESRB.
We should allow the content creators that same kind of latitude when it comes to making videos on YouTube.
Many already do this and are maturely responsible individuals. Allow the creators to police themselves.
If you give the Content Creator the opportunity/option to decide where they believe their videos is best age appropriate
it will help avoid confusion and any unnecessary conflicts.

3. If the belief that certain viewing individuals are falling prey to advertisement through YouTube
unknowingly then allow the content creator the option to decide if they are making these videos for money
or just for the pure joy of making videos.
If its just to make video content for fun have them agree to forfeiting their choice to make money on that video by their own consent.
Again this is only if the content creator decides if this is what's in their best interest.
That the video itself has no advertisements to get around this choice.
If however they decide at a later date that they wish to monetize that video they then need to go through an appeal process.
It's important to know if they're doing this just for fun the last thing they need to worry about is being fine/penalized for the content they are sharing freely to others to begin with.

In closing I would like to say in the end when it comes to children many of us just want to do what we believe is the best thing for their future.
Yet its important to also remember the ones who use to be the children.
That have now grown up and are aspiring their own dreams.
One of those dreams being the joy through the passion to provide through the videos they share on their favorite platform called YouTube.
A platform they continue to use today and with hope can still continue to use it the way they had in the past
without the fear of being punished for their joy. And as a fan who watches these videos I still hope I can continue to share in their joy.
I sincerely thank you for your time FTC and I wish you good day.

So YouTube breaks the rules and then try their best to figure out a way to 'Not Pay' content creators... Gotcha
Nothing like making everybody pay when you get caught with your corporate hand in the cookie jar.

Here's an idea, just have Youtube allow us to tick a box that says "Not for kids" or "PG-13" or "Rated T for Teen" or "Not intentionally aimed at kids". Simple. There are a gazillion websites that do this. A simple on/off switch that instead of saying "On/Off" are saying "for kids/not for kids".

while i am not a Youtube creator, but i actually understand and enjoyed so many contents on Youtube. FTC’s COPPA law just too vague, too harsh, and too wrong for everyone even for children and creator alike for so many reason!!!!! Let’s me tell you okay?
1. Even FTC and COPPA try to protect children’s privacy, this just too much discrimination on the grounds of a people's age. Also nowadays Children don’t want to be underestimated just because they are underage.
2. Most YouTube Creators wouldn't be Able to Continue what they do Best. because of civil penalties of up to $42,530 per violation video.
3. There's YouTube creators who expect to hear Comments on their Videos. also every creators know they never wanted to get children’s personal informations.
4. Videos are used as Source Material for Many Things.
5. YouTube Videos are Made for so many People giving their Thoughts on and more. and please understand that every youtubers are different.
6. YouTube is not just Place for Watching just about Anything, but also Place for Watching Livestreams, Entertainments, Animations, Stories, Musics, How to do stuff, Clips of Stuff, Segments and Sketches of Stuff, Reaction Videos, Social Media, and so many of Good stuffs Creators still can do. especially we all know what Social Media's all about, and FTC and COPPA Please understand.
7. There's Trillions of Videos and Channels out there that've been Glad to have Around and really Glad to be in Youtube. especially now Worldwide Companies have Their own Official channel. So if their channel are taken down just because they aren’t kid friendly, That would cause irreparable damage instead.
8. Friendly Stuff is The Most Common and Most Loved Thing to have in the World enjoyed by everyone.
9. YouTube Videos that talk about the History of Things and that Educate People are very Important. They gained so much wisdom and enlightenment from Youtube.
If FTC and COPPA law try to remove comments, family friendly contents, likes, dislikes, and mores, They would not just seriously damaging the community itself, but also jobs, people’s Hope and dream, and at worst humanity itself!!!!!. This is why countless Youtubers are traumatized and feared about this law. I Hope FTC can understand all this.


ooh this may be good news

Would videos about robots that aren't geared towards kids covered by Coppa or am I safe?

What happens if you are a kid and are a creator because I’m on tablet and I can’t make my audience set or upload videos

So basically, goodbye YouTube. Cant wait to protest.

From comment to comment people have been blindly panicking. Although it might not reflect rational thoughts and just end up wasting time. I feel like the law is fair, but there could be more done, but targeted more at the corporations like Youtube to help Content Creators be less confused.

Although Youtube paid the fine they could still do some more, I think Youtube should split the audiences or kick kids out of their site.

If they split the audiences, Youtube could ask for either the date of birth or an email which would verify that the person is at least 13 years of age and Youtube Kids could be for children under 13. Where I feel, Youtube Kids should still have some sort of parent consent whether to have an email sent to their parents/guardians to use Youtube Kids

With kicking out kids entirely, although a huge chunk of viewers would drop it would be safer and easier. Where Youtube could still use the date of birth or email to make sure whether or not they could go on the website.

By having both children under the age 13 and people 13 years or older on the same site it would be confusing. It would be hard to decide between and in-between content made for adults and content msde for kids under the age of 13.

In conclusion, corporations need to do more for causing the rules to be broken and having every single audience on one site would not be a good idea. I think its more of a decission of splitting the audience into two groups or cutting off kids under 13 entirely. Having the corporations do more to split the audiences would go a long way in making the internet safer for children

Finally, YouTube is becoming more responsible for the content uploaded on their platform. People who are against this regulation have no idea what impact has the videos to a kid. The same should be done on Instagram and all social media.

I do hope y’all come up with something different. I am an artist and similar retired. I watch several different lady’s that just share their art. I learn from them. It is something so simple and uplifting. Why would you want to take this from people.

I believe that this is a terrible idea. A lot of content on YouTube fall into a gray area that will have to change drastically if this law is enacted and as both a creator and a fan of YouTube I think that this law should be changed as soon as possible thank you.

If i mark my channel as not kid friendly will anything happen to me? I have a motion designing channel that i feel is going to be deleted by YouTube themselves anyways, but i want to know if motion designing will count as kid friendly. So i used about 5 songs with swear words but it isn't all of my content. I don't even swear at all. Also, i play games like Roblox and Fortnite on there too. Will i be effected if i mark my channel as non-kid friendly?

Don't let your guidelines punish innocent creators! These guidelines are overly broad and vague. If this isn't done carefully it has the potential to ruin the lives of creators everywhere.

Honestly, we understand that you want to protect children and all, but these rules are going too far. Having people being fined up to 42,000 dollars is insane. YouTube Kids is a thing, and kids can be safer on that. Instead of having insane fines and crazy strict rules, parents should have the option to determine whether their kid should have the much safer option of YouTube Kids. There should be something where parents can toggle an option to block anything that isn't child friendly, including censoring swearing, blurring nudity, etc. Although this is all my opinion, I say you should either make the penalties less strict, or having that toggling censorship button.

Please do not do this rule many people are at risk here. This rule is not effective. More then 800,000 people agree.

How about suing parents who don't supervise what their children are watching instead of trying to ruin the lives of people who mostly didn't do anything wrong and leave the Baby Shark alone.

Really think you all should clear this up specially for the crafting Community ! How can a program get this right! We use glue, scissors, paper , sewing and so on ! Why is this not the parents job or why are the parents not held responsible ! This needs to be fixed before the first of the year!

Hey so umm I just to say...YOUTUBE NEWS RULES ARE NOT FAIR TO EVERYONE! I mean come on it's not fair to everyone, there is less than 10% of YouTube audient that is 13-17 and over 90% of YouTubers audients is the age o 18 but YouTube wants everyone to make content for kids from 12 and under!


This is why there is an app FOR KIDS, plus a lot of YouTubers are quitting cause of this which means less content creator and fewer viewers, plus you need to pay about $42.000 dollar for marking the content creator videos wrong or they make their content too kid-friendly or violent or whatever, SOME content creators don't have that much money.

TO ME THIS ISN'T FAIR TO EVERYONE I MEAN WHAT IF I HAVE A KID AND THEY WANT TO START A YOUTUBE CHANNEL BUT THEY CAN'T!!! Look...I'm not trying to sound upset but I'm mad about this whole update on YouTube but this is going to affect a lot of channels and this isn't fair and once again they new YouTube rules are not fair.

So I have an idea, how about YouTube stay the same as it is without these new stupid rules...


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